Education is the real important factor in human life as it is a fundamental to human progress. According to Martin Luther King Jr. “The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus character that is the goal of true education. “.Education plays a vital role in overall development of an individual and building up a society. Good education today will bring us better tomorrow. As it is said that our future lies in the hands of the present. If we nurture our present education system it will bring us better tomorrow.
India has no dearth of knowledge, but this talent needs to be harnessed and given proper education for our future. The Indian education system consists of both public and private sector finance. The funding and control is done at three levels, local financing, central financing and state financing. In India it is a fundamental rule that people aged between 6 and 14 should have compulsory education.
In the eleventh five year plan public –private partnership (PPP) model was proposed in the fields of education for no government or social control over the education system. This (PPP) model highlighted contractual agreement, the partnership for infrastructure and school management and government support to select students.
THE LEVELS OF EDUCAATION SYSTEM IN INDIA:
- Pre- primary education: This is the level when children are about 3-4 years of age.It is the initial learning stage of individuals.
- Primary education: This is the stage linking the primary and the elementary level of learning.
- Elementary education: Elementary level of education is compulsory in India. As it is a fundamental rule that people between age group 6 and 14 should have compulsory education.
- Secondary education: It is the link between the elementary education and the higher education. This is the education level till class 12th.
- Higher education: After the completion of secondary level comes the higher education level. This is the under graduate and post graduate.
India is the 2nd most populated country in the world with a literacy rate raised to 75% (2016), it has risen from 12% at the time of independence in 1947. But it still is lagging behind the world literacy rate of 84%. To compare with other Nations, India has the largest illiterate population.
If we see the literacy rates in Indian states. Then state with highest literacy rate is the Southern State of Kerala with 93.91%. And the state with lowest literacy rate is Bihar with a figure of 63.82%.
|Rank||India/State/Union Territory||Literacy Rate (%) – 2011 Census||Male Literacy Rate (%) – 2011 Census||Female Literacy Rate (%) – 2011 Census|
|6||Daman & Diu||87.07||91.48||79.59|
|10||Andaman & Nicobar||86.27||90.11||81.84|
|19||Dadra & Nagar Haveli||77.65||86.46||65.93|
|30||Jammu & Kashmir||68.74||78.26||58.01|
TABLE: STATUS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA ON THE BASIS OF CENSUS 2011 REPORTS.
According to the census report 2011 the male literacy rate is 82.14% as compared to the female literacy rate that is 65.46%. The Female Literacy Rate is lower in every state as compared to the male literacy rates. Female literacy is highest in Kerala that is 91.98% and lowest in Rajasthan 52.57%. The male literacy is highest in Kerala 96.02% and lowest in Bihar that is 73.39%.
CHALLENGES FOR THE INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
- 25% of the population is still illiterate.
- Education in rural and backward areas of country.
A survey called the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) shows that even though enrollment of students in schools has increased but the progress in knowledgeable education is still poor. As a fifth grade student is still unable to read the second grade textbooks. The level of mathematics and reading is further declining in rural schools. The reasons cited in the survey was the increasing number of one room classrooms which means students of different grade sitting and studying in one classroom.
There are many crises that are holding back the rural education to match up the urban education system. But the reformation can bring in positive changes towards the development of rural education in India.
DRAWBACKS IN INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
- DISPARITIES IN VARIOUS STREAMS OF EDUCATION
The Indian society is bringing in disparities in the education system is giving more focus on engineering and medical. Vocational subjects are lagging behind in the Indian society. One has to make efforts to convince the society before going ahead with the plans of making a career out of his/her hobby.
- CHALK AND TALK SYSTEM OF TEACHING
India is still following the old traditional methods of teaching, where blackboard teaching is done. New technology plays very little role in Indian teaching method. Some technologies are adopted in the urban education system, but in the rural education system this is nil.
- INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM PROMOTES PRIVATE TUITIONS
The Indian education system lacks in teaching students how to become a good professional or a good citizen. It only focuses on how o crack an entrance exam or a board exam. Which takes away the essences of teaching students gain nothing. As a result, they are bound to join tuitions and coaching centers. Now a day coaching centers are becoming a hub of education centers.
- STUDENTS END UP AS JACK OF ALL TRADES AND MASTER OF NONE
In India the syllabus is as such that students have to study something of everything from civics to geography, history to science, language to trigonometry. In the process of attaining everything, students lack focus on focusing and knowing even one particular subject. This is the reason behind students fail to carry out research or have little or no creative pursuits later in their future.
- RIGHT TO BETTER EDUCATION IS AFFECTED BY A STUDENTS FINANCIAL STATUS
Financial status is also a hindrance in attaining quality education in India. Most of the teaching centers with quality education come under private sector which demands high fees. Poor families cannot afford to put their children in such schools to attain knowledge. Even though their children are very much talented their parents cannot make up the fee these private institutions demands and are deprived of getting a proper education.
- ALLOCATION OF TEACHERS IS ALSO POOR
Most of the proper qualified teachers are sent to government institutions. While people send their wards to private schools. A sense of accountability is completely lacking in parts of the teachers. On process of these students get affected the most. The attendance of teachers is also low in some of the institutions because they are not well qualified or they are underpaid.
Infrastructure facilities at schools across rural areas and in slums dispense is of very poor quality of education. Schools in rural areas are not properly organised; there is a lack of class room for different grades. Students of different classes, study in one classroom. This is a very ill organised process of learning.
Education status today highlights low rate of enrollment, unequal access, and poor quality of infrastructure and lack of relevance. Much more is needed to uplift our society with greater flow of good education system. So to uplift the status of Indian education the goal remains –expansion with inclusion and ensuring quality and relevant education.